Radiocarbon dating - Wikipedia
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So anyway, we have our atmosphere, and then coming from our sun, we have what's commonly called cosmic rays, but they're actually not rays. You can view them as just single protons, which is the same thing as a hydrogen nucleus. They can also be alpha particles, which is the same thing as a helium nucleus. And there's even a few electrons.
And they're going to come in, and they're going to bump into things in our atmosphere, and they're actually going to form neutrons.
So they're actually going to form neutrons. And we'll show a neutron with a lowercase n, and a 1 for its mass number. And we don't write anything, because it has no protons down here. Like we had for nitrogen, we had seven protons. So it's not really an element.
It is a subatomic particle. But you have these neutrons form.
And every now and then-- and let's just be clear-- this isn't like a typical reaction. But every now and then one of those neutrons will bump into one of the nitrogen's in just the right way so that it bumps off one of the protons in the nitrogen and essentially replaces that proton with itself.
So let me make it clear. So it bumps off one of the protons. So instead of seven protons we now have six protons. But this number 14 doesn't go down to 13 because it replaces it with itself. So this still stays at And now since it only has six protons, this is no longer nitrogen, by definition. This is now carbon. And that proton that was bumped off just kind of gets emitted. So then let me just do that in another color.
And a proton that's just flying around, you could call that hydrogen 1. And it can gain an electron some ways. If it doesn't gain an electron, it's just a hydrogen ion, a positive ion, either way, or a hydrogen nucleus. But this process-- and once again, it's not a typical process, but it happens every now and then-- this is how carbon forms.
So this right here is carbon You can essentially view it as a nitrogen where one of the protons is replaced with a neutron. And what's interesting about this is this is constantly being formed in our atmosphere, not in huge quantities, but in reasonable quantities. So let me write this down. And let me be very clear.
Let's look at the periodic table over here. So carbon by definition has six protons, but the typical isotope, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon So carbon is the most common.
The fundamental hypothesis in these estimations is that the rate of radioactive carbon existing when the organism was living would have been the same as the rate in a similar organism alive today. The ratio of the activities of the fossilized and living bodies then provides an age.
Carbon 14 dating 1 (video) | Khan Academy
The estimation assumes that the rate of formation of atmospheric carbon 14 has not changed since the days when the fossil was alive. This is not entirely true and it is necessary to readjust the time and make corrections.
When the remains to date are very old, the nuclei of carbon become so rare that the observation of their decays becomes impractical. One has to count the carbon atoms themselves. This is done in facilities designed for this purpose, made of a mass spectrograph associated with a small accelerator.
Samples of a few milligrams of the vestige to date are introduced in the installation which allows to measure the isotopic ratios of the ordinary carbon and its radioactive isotope. Obtaining such a sample can be tricky.
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Radioactivity : Radiocarbon Dating
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