Antonio Vivaldi - Wikipedia
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After the premiere in January there was high praise for the soloist, Marguerite Long, and for Ravel's score, though not for his conducting. Igor Stravinsky  In OctoberRavel suffered a blow to the head in a taxi accident. The injury was not thought serious at the time, but in a study for the British Medical Journal in the neurologist R. Henson concludes that it may have exacerbated an existing cerebral condition. The manuscript orchestral score is in Ravel's hand, but Lucien Garban and Manuel Rosenthal helped in transcription.
Ravel composed no more after this. Experts have ruled out the possibility of a tumourand have variously suggested frontotemporal dementiaAlzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt—Jakob disease.
Henson notes that Ravel preserved most or all his auditory imagery and could still hear music in his head. Vincent advised surgical treatment. He thought a tumour unlikely, and expected to find ventricular dilatation that surgery might prevent from progressing. Ravel's brother Edouard accepted this advice; as Henson comments, the patient was in no state to express a considered view.
After the operation there seemed to be an improvement in his condition, but it was short-lived, and he soon lapsed into a coma. He died on 28 December, at the age of Ravel was an atheist and there was no religious ceremony. List of compositions by Maurice Ravel Marcel Marnat 's catalogue of Ravel's complete works lists eighty-five works, including many incomplete or abandoned. Ravel's music includes pieces for piano, chamber music, two piano concerti, ballet music, opera, and song cycles.
He wrote no symphonies or church works.
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- Hector Berlioz
Foreign influences include Mozart, SchubertLiszt and Chopin. What is important is the melodic line. Ravel to Vaughan Williams  Ravel placed high importance on melody, telling Vaughan Williams that there is "an implied melodic outline in all vital music".
National and regional consciousness was important to him, and although a planned concerto on Basque themes never materialised, his works include allusions to HebraicGreekHungarian and gypsy themes.
Ravel said that he learnt from Poe that "true art is a perfect balance between pure intellect and emotion",  with the corollary that a piece of music should be a perfectly balanced entity with no irrelevant material allowed to intrude.
The unrealised three were Olympia, La cloche engloutie and Jeanne d'Arc. Olympia was to be based on Hoffmann 's The Sandman; he made sketches for it in —99, but did not progress far. Nichols comments that the essential Spanish colouring gave Ravel a reason for virtuoso use of the modern orchestra, which the composer considered "perfectly designed for underlining and exaggerating comic effects".
She and Ravel had planned the story as a ballet, but at the composer's suggestion Colette turned it into an opera libretto.
It is more uncompromisingly modern in its musical style than L'heure espagnole, and the jazz elements and bitonality of much of the work upset many Parisian opera-goers.
He never studied the piano, and throughout his life played haltingly at best. He was teased for what was seen as a boyish crush, but something of his early passion for Estelle endured all his life. At his father's insistence he enrolled at the School of Medicine of the University of Paris. Music did not at that time enjoy the prestige of literature in French culture,  but Paris nonetheless possessed two major opera houses and the country's most important music library.
He was particularly inspired by Gluck's use of the orchestra to carry the drama along. His father suggested law as an alternative profession and refused to countenance music as a career. Conservatoire student[ edit ] In Berlioz composed a Messe solennelle.
It was performed twice, after which he suppressed the score, which was thought lost until a copy was discovered in During and he wrote his first opera, Les francs-juges, which was not performed and survives only in fragments, the best known of which is the overture.
In the same year he made the first of four attempts to win France's premier music prize, the Prix de Romeand was eliminated in the first round. Although at the time Berlioz spoke hardly any English, he was overwhelmed by the plays — the start of a lifelong passion for Shakespeare.
He also conceived a passion for Kemble's leading lady, Harriet Smithson — his biographer Hugh Macdonald calls it "emotional derangement" — and obsessively pursued her, without success, for several years. She refused even to meet him.
The hall was far from full, and Berlioz lost money. At around the same time he encountered two further creative inspirations: Prix de Rome[ edit ] Berlioz was largely apolitical, and neither supported nor opposed the July Revolution ofbut when it broke out he found himself in the middle of it.
I was finishing my cantata when the revolution broke out I dashed off the final pages of my orchestral score to the sound of stray bullets coming over the roofs and pattering on the wall outside my window. On the 29th I had finished, and was free to go out and roam about Paris till morning, pistol in hand. His feelings were reciprocated, and the couple planned to be married.
Protracted applause followed the performance, and the press reviews expressed both the shock and the pleasure the work had given. Liszt later transcribed the entire Symphonie fantastique for piano to enable more people to hear it. Within three weeks of his arrival he went absent without leave: His colleagues at the Villa Medici, under their benevolent principal Horace Vernetmade him welcome,  and he enjoyed his meetings with Felix Mendelssohnwho was visiting the city, [n 9] but he found Rome distasteful: He visited many parts of it during his residency in Rome.
Macdonald comments that after his time there, Berlioz had "a new colour and glow in his music He left Rome in May and arrived in Paris in November. Paris[ edit ] On 9 December Berlioz presented a concert of his works at the Conservatoire. Biographers differ about whether and to what extent Smithson's receptiveness to Berlioz's wooing was motivated by financial considerations; [n 10] but she accepted him, and in the face of strong opposition from both their families they were married at the British Embassy in Paris on 3 October Harriet continued to yearn for a career but, as her biographer Peter Raby comments, she never learned to speak French fluently, which seriously limited both her professional and her social life.
Greatly impressed by the Symphonie fantastique, he asked Berlioz to write him a suitable piece. Macdonald comments that this was activity "at which he excelled but which he abhorred". Vivaldi started his career as an opera composer as a sideline: The work was not to the public's taste, and it closed after a couple of weeks, being replaced with a repeat of a different work already given the previous year.
The opera contained eleven ariasand was a success. In the late season, Vivaldi planned to put on an opera entirely of his own creation, Arsilda, regina di Ponto RVbut the state censor blocked the performance. The main character, Arsilda, falls in love with another woman, Lisea, who is pretending to be a man. The most important were two oratorios. Moyses Deus Pharaonis, RV is now lost.
The second, Juditha triumphans RVcelebrates the victory of the Republic of Venice against the Turks and the recapture of the island of Corfu. Composed init is one of his sacred masterpieces. All eleven singing parts were performed by girls of the orphanage, both the female and male roles. Many of the arias include parts for solo instruments—recorders, oboes, violas d'amoreand mandolins—that showcased the range of talents of the girls.
The latter was so popular that it performed two years later, re-edited and retitled Artabano re dei Parti RVnow lost. It was also performed in Prague in In the years that followed, Vivaldi wrote several operas that were performed all over Italy. Frontispiece of Il teatro alla moda His progressive operatic style caused him some trouble with more conservative musicians such as Benedetto Marcelloa magistrate and amateur musician who wrote a pamphlet denouncing Vivaldi and his operas. The pamphlet, Il teatro alla modaattacks the composer even as it does not mention him directly.
The cover drawing shows a boat the Sant'Angeloon the left end of which stands a little angel wearing a priest's hat and playing the violin. The Marcello family claimed ownership of the Teatro Sant'Angelo, and a long legal battle had been fought with the management for its restitution, without success.
The obscure text under the engraving mentions non-existent places and names: In a letter written by Vivaldi to his patron Marchese Bentivoglio inhe makes reference to his "94 operas". Only around 50 operas by Vivaldi have been discovered, and no other documentation of the remaining operas exists. Although Vivaldi may have been exaggerating, it is plausible that, in his dual role of composer and impresario, he may have either written or been responsible for the production of as many as 94 operas—given that his career had by then spanned almost 25 years.
Inhe was in Milan, where he presented the pastoral drama La Silvia RV ; nine arias from it survive.Queen - The Show Must Go On (Official Video)
In he moved to Rome, where he introduced his operas' new style. InVivaldi returned to Venice, where he produced four operas in the same year. During this period Vivaldi wrote the Four Seasonsfour violin concertos that give musical expression to the seasons of the year.
Though three of the concerti are wholly original, the first, "Spring", borrows motifs from a Sinfonia in the first act of Vivaldi's contemporaneous opera Il Giustino. The inspiration for the concertos was probably the countryside around Mantua. They were a revolution in musical conception: Each concerto is associated with a sonnetpossibly by Vivaldi, describing the scenes depicted in the music.
InVivaldi met the emperor while the emperor was visiting Trieste to oversee the construction of a new port. Charles admired the music of the Red Priest so much that he is said to have spoken more with the composer during their one meeting than he spoke to his ministers in over two years. He gave Vivaldi the title of knighta gold medal and an invitation to Vienna. Vivaldi gave Charles a manuscript copy of La cetra, a set of concerti almost completely different from the set of the same title published as Opus 9.
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The printing was probably delayed, forcing Vivaldi to gather an improvised collection for the emperor. Accompanied by his father, Vivaldi traveled to Vienna and Prague inwhere his opera Farnace RV was presented;  it garnered six revivals. L'Olimpiade and Catone in Utica were written by Pietro Metastasiothe major representative of the Arcadian movement and court poet in Vienna.